Inflammation of the bladder is easy to recognize, the symptoms of this disease are specific. The patient experiences frequent urges to urinate, but they become increasingly unproductive. It is possible to "squeeze" a small amount of urine, sometimes blood is mixed with it. The process becomes painful, there is a feeling of traction on the pubic region.
Signs of cystitis in women
Cases of the disease in women are registered more often than in men. This is due to the female anatomy. The causes of cystitis in women are due to the fact that their urethra is shorter than a male's with a larger bladder. Its increased volume allows girls to urinate less often. The urine stream naturally eliminates pathogens from the urinary tract. Hence the chain: women are less likely to go to the toilet, pathogens that enter the urethra are rarely washed out, and a short urethra is a quick way for their "delivery" to the urinary organ.
Other causes of cystitis in women: microtrauma of the urethra, infections that can penetrate from the anus, vagina. Typical signs of the onset and development of cystitis:
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- acute painful sensations during the process of urination;
- burning of the urethra;
- unexpected and uncontrolled discharge of urine drops;
- urine is dark in color, sometimes there is an admixture of blood;
- an increase in temperature (in the most acute and severe cases).
Symptoms of inflammation in men
The causes of the disease in men differ from those in women. The chances of getting sick increase with age. The disease is facilitated by:
- urolithiasis disease;
- chronic genital infections;
- stricture (narrowing or complete closure) of the urethra;
- weakening of immunity;
- pyelonephritis or renal tuberculosis.
Symptoms appear as follows:
- frequent trips to the toilet (up to 40 times a day), but the one-time urine volume as a result is small, about 10-15 ml;
- urinary incontinence ("drip drip");
- difficulty, pain when urinating;
- in order for the bladder to begin to empty, you need to make an effort;
- the beginning and end of the process are accompanied by pain;
- temperature (in acute forms).
A common cause of infectious cystitis is Escherichia coli, less often chlamydia, candida fungi, and ureaplasma. In addition to infections, damage to the urethra, hypothermia and chronic diseases, other causes also lead to inflammation:
- the external opening of the urinary canal is constantly exposed to irritation (mechanical);
- the patient is allergic to intimate cosmetics, vaginal deodorant, soap, talc, even toilet paper;
- in women, one of the causes of the onset of the disease, when urinary incontinence occurs, is called psychosomatic, that is, the release of experiences on the physical plane is the reaction of the organism to problems;
- cystitis in a child can cause an anatomical anomaly: urine is rejected into the ureters and the process of its exit is disrupted.
If blood impurities are visible during urination, the disease is hemorrhagic. Blood appears not only at the end of the expulsion of urine, but also during the entire process, while all the liquid is colored in a light pink or cloudy, rusty color (these cases are accompanied by a fetid odor from the discharge). If the bleeding is severe, blood clots are released.
With a prolonged illness with constant blood loss, the patient develops anemia with iron deficiency. The causes of hemorrhagic cystitis are viral inflammations. This is not uncommon for older men who have a history of prostate adenoma. Radiation exposure, taking cytostatics (drugs used in oncology, often for pelvic tumors) can cause bloody cystitis. Often the hemorrhagic form of the disease is accompanied by chills, fever.
If you start the disease, not only will anemia develop, but hemorrhagic cystitis will develop into a chronic form. Start the treatment on time. Complications that can accompany cystitis with bleeding:
- Bladder tamponade, blockage of its lumen by a blood clot. Urine cannot come out, the bladder is strongly strained.
- Infection: An infection penetrates through torn blood vessels, which can lead to blood poisoning.
Purulent inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bladder, acute cystitis is the most frequent manifestation of the disease. At the same time, there are no serious concomitant diseases. Most often, this form of the disease occurs in women. Up to 36 million cases of acute cystitis are diagnosed in Russia each year. Symptoms last for about a week and are diagnosed based on symptoms and urinalysis.
This form of the disease involves constant inflammation of the urinary organ with temporary remissions and exacerbations. Chronic cystitis occurs as a complication of some other disease, it means the appearance of a severe weakness of the immune system. Chronic inflammation develops against the background of diabetes mellitus, obesity and hypertension. The trigger for the manifestation of symptoms of previously transferred cystitis is hypothermia.
The chronic course of the disease is complicated by malnutrition, stress, hypovitaminosis and impaired metabolism. How the disease will proceed is influenced by the composition of the human microflora, its biological properties. Officially, a diagnosis such as "chronic cystitis" does not exist in medical reference books, it is more of a colloquial form to refer to a repeated recurrence of acute cystitis.
What are the causes of cystitis?
The bladder is an organ resistant to external influences, covered with a special protective mucous membrane. The penetration of bacteria and viruses to it is "provided" by the patient himself. The causes of cystitis are infections, but the factors that cause them are more associated with a lifestyle in which a person reduces their defense. Long and tiring diet, sitting on cold surfaces, constant fatigue, stress - all this leads to illness.
Factors that predispose to the onset and development of inflammation of the urinary tract:
- Habit formed for a long time to "endure", to postpone going to the bathroom, even if you really want to. At the same time, the muscle fibers are excessively stretched, blood circulation in the bladder wall is disturbed.
- Violation of personal hygiene, when microbes from the genitals, rectum, anus wander unhindered into the bladder. In this case, the prevention of contamination is the best remedy for the disease.
- Foreign bodies in the lumen of the urethra.
- Swelling in the urethra, bladder.
- Seasonal decrease in immunity, weakening of the body with diseases of various origins.
- Menopause, pregnancy, postpartum period.
- Wear tight and uncomfortable clothing, tight pantyhose and underwear.
Causes of cystitis after intercourse
It is known that cystitis after sex occurs in women as a result of vaginal intimacy. The first to suffer are those whose urethra is located in a special way, the urethra is open in front of the vagina. This is a variant of the norm, but with such a structure of the genitourinary system, the vaginal contents enter the urethra, and then the bladder. In this case, the woman and her partner must be careful to avoid mechanical damage to the vagina.